Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень. Mining informational and analytical bulletin. №1/2014

TITLE PAGE

CONTENT



Underground mining



DEMIN V.F., DEMINA T.V. ESTIMATE OF DAMAGE PARAMETERS IN DEVELOPMENT ENTRIES DEPENDING ON MINE-TECHNICAL AND OPERATION CONDITIONS
Deep-level mining and deterioration of mining conditions permanently complicate mining. Coal extraction is restrained by the neglect of mine operation conditions, or by inappropriate support and its mismatch with the mine-technical conditions. Comparative analysis of damage rate in the mines of the Coal Department yields the accident risk growth in the mines. The Coal Department has developed engineering provisions towards higher coal extraction capacity and lower coal production cost. One the ways of improving mine working conditions and cutting down material resources is the use of the duly substantiated support. Reliability of underground excavation support is narrowed due to insufficient study of geomechanical processes in the vicinity of mine workings. The authors think it is advisable to use steel-polymer rock bolts in complicated mining-and-geological and mine-technical conditions.
Key words: underground mining, rock bolting, factors, efficiency, studies, mining-and-geological and mine-technical conditions, process flow sheets, drivage, types of support, technical performance level.



DANIYAROV N.A. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF MECHANIZING METHODS AND MEANS FOR UNDERGROUND ORE MINE PROCESS FLOWS
The developed structural classification and analysis of mechanizing methods and means enable: ranking of multivarious self-propelled equipment designs by functional features; designating position and purpose of every machine inside the complex hierarchy of the industrial process, considering functional relations of equipment; selecting the most suitable functional chart under given operation conditions; and identifying further development policy for the mechanization means in terms of design and technology.
The structure of combinations of mechanizing means and methods for underground ore mining depends on mining-and-geological and mine-technical factors, organizational issues, types of equipment in operation, etc. The common condition for underground mine machine complexes is operation in the drilling-and-blasting affected environment.
From analysis, the key classification feature is the functional criterion that allows an ore mining process to be divided into operations, each representing nearly uniform activity and a virtually accomplished stage.
Key words: structural classification, mechanizing means, underground mining, mining alternatives.


PROKOPOVA M.V. ABOUT THE CONDITION OF VERTICAL SHAFT COAL MINES DONBASS
The comparative analysis of data about a condition of vertical shaft of collieries of the Russian and Ukrainian Donbass is made. Results of the analysis of the mountain-geological conditions which are becoming complicated with increase of depth of development of a mineral are presented. The reasons of infringement set and reinforcement trunks are revealed. The basic directions of perfection of schemes and ways of reconstruction of shafts are certain.
By the research data of the State Research Institute of Organization and Mechanization of Mine Construction, amount of shafts with damaged support and armoring grows in mines of Donbass.
The article presents the curves of the stability criteria, depth and calculated compression strength for mine shafts located beyond aquifers and zones of influence of stopes in flat dipping deposits.
The data analysis yields basic causes of damage of the support and armoring in vertical mine shafts. As mining goes to deeper level, impairment of mine shaft support and armoring worsen as the host rock stability decreases and mining-and-geological conditions complicate (increased ground pressures, higher water inflow). It is therefore urgent to design and improve reconditioning schemes and methods for vertical shafts.
Key words: vertical shaft, set, reinforcement, reconstruction.


TURTIGINANA N.A. INVESTIGATION OF THE PROCESS OF SEGREGATION OF POOR COPPER-NICKEL ORES
The article is written in result of the implementation of the special industrial research of ore-flow at the Zapolyarny mine, on the basis of design data the estimation of the state of technological variability poor quality copper-nickel ores and revealed phenomenon texture segregation of ore quality.
Key words: terms: Ore, quality, segregation, composition, mine



Open-cast



KHRUNINA N.P., PODSHIVALOV V.S., BOGOMYKOV R.V. SANDS OF CLAYEY OF ALLUVIAL GOLD OF KOLCHAN FIELD RESEARCH
Results research of the sands of clayey which allow to appraise to opportunity theirs disintegration of not traditional methods are shown. The sands have the parts with very complicate for destruction clayey, which couldn't be disintegration with the help of known technologies are determined.
Based on the experimental data and calculated Lame constants and particle velocity amplitudes in waves, the author obtains the values of elastic oscillation intensity I [2] (at initial moment) to be sufficient to maintain relative strain |S|=10-4 in placer gold for gold disintegration.
The research findings on physico-mechanical properties, grain size and fractional composition of the Kolchan placer gold showed that all samples had increased content (from 42.2 to 47.1%) of fine-dispersed clay particles (under 5 µm).
It has been found advisable to intensify the placer gold disintegration by additional wave treatment, especially on site no. 2. The rational parameters of the elastic oscillation intensity are defined at the early stage wave treatment of placer gold.
Key words: disintegration, humidity, resistance of wave, intensity.



Enrichment of minerals



KLYKOV YU.G., GURIEV T.S. EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE COMPOSITION OF GROUND MATERIAL ON ENERGY PARAMETERS OF THE MATERIAL DISINTEGRATION
The curves of the ground material size, particle specific surface and grinding energy demand are analyzed.
Energy necessary to produce partial yield of each size, either “plus” or “minus,” is found.
The first case estimation was aimed at energy spent to crush all coarse sizes of original material to produce one fine size of end product.
In the second case, energy spent for crushing one large size of original material to obtain all fine sizes of end product was determined.
The found partial energies are the components of the total energy; their analysis yields distribution of disintegration energy.
The study source data are the data of experimental grinding of quartz and complex ore in centrifugal mills.
The developed software program allows evaluation of the specific surface increment for each size grade particles and the specific surface for each size grade of the original material and end product at energy consumption minimum.
Key words: grinding, grain size composition, deformation, energy consumption.



KOZLOV V.A., NOVAK V.I., PIKALOV M.F. LARGE-DIAMETER DENSE-MEDIUM HYDROCYCLONE OPERATION MODELING
The article reviews the results of large-diameter dense-medium hydrocyclone operation modeling in the framework of the Australia Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) and Australia Research Council (ARC) in 2008—2010.
The studies show that small-diameter, 610—760 mm, hydrocyclones are more effective in separation of coal particles of small size, down to 0.25 mm. Therefore, the authors [1] describe a concept of simple approach to simultaneous increase in output and efficiency of hydrocyclones by combining hydrocyclones of large and small diameter.
The fundamental approach to modeling hydrocyclone operation assumes correct understanding of dense-medium cyclone (DMC) operation, overcoming of difficulties, and accurate measurement of its operation parameters.
The discussed project involved over 100 alternative models, each for different set of geometry and operation conditions for DMC. As a result, using the databases, the multivariate model has been developed and produced simplified relations of the geometry and operation parameters.
The studies point out that high output and high efficiency of medium density separation in hydrocyclones are the mutually exclusive characteristics. In any case, it is feasible to gain from the high output and efficiency of hydrocyclones by combining large-size DMC for coarse particles and small-diameter DMC for fine particles.
Key words: coal preparation, dense-medium hydrocyclone, coal grain size, separation density, separation error.



MISHURINA O.A., MEDYANIK N.L. ELECTROFLOTATION EXTRACTION OF MANGANESE FROM THE HYDRO-TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF THE MINING WORKS
The article is devoted to an urgent problem of the working out of saving resources technology of manganese containing hydro-mineral resources processing. Here are given the results of investigations of electroflotation extraction of manganese dispersed phase Mn (III,IV) from the technical mortars.
The analytical examination of acid mine water at mining-and-processing works located in the southern Urals showed high content of copper, zinc, and iron, as well as high content of Mn (II) ions, which allowed assuming the acid mine water the mine-generated source of manganese compounds. Currently, it is urgent to find alternative sources of different manganese compounds widely used in metallurgical and other industries in Russia.
The present article, based on the quantitative anion composition of acid mine water, proposes to extract Mn (II) from the waters using the combination of two electrochemical methods-electric coagulation and electric flotation. The fusion of the sedimentation-flotation processes will yield high figures of manganese extraction from acid water in the form of salable product.
Based on the theoretical and experimental research, the process flow sheet of selective manganese extraction from process water of mining-and-processing integrated works has been developed and approved in terms of dump water of the Buribaevsky MPIW JSC. Scaled-up laboratory tests of the three basic stages of the flow sheet, namely, casehardening, acid-base sedimentation and electric flotation, allowed finding optimum parameters of selective extraction of copper, iron and manganese from acid dump water.
Key words: resources technology, manganese, electroflotation extraction, parameters process.


NESTEROV YU.V., FILIPPOV A.P. URANIUM LEACHING USING SULFUR DIOXIDE
The authors discuss the method of improvement of uranium extraction and its leaching intensification.
Towards higher silver extraction during heap leaching, it was suggested [3] to pre-remove manganese by treating ore by SO2 solutions. SO2 may also work as an oxidizer: in terms of the autoclave leaching of the Filizchaisky deposit pyrrhotine ore, it has been illustrated how oxygen can be replaced by SO2 as the sulfide sulfur oxidizer.
It is a promising way to use mixtures of SO2 and O2 (in the form of atmospheric oxygen) as an oxidizer for hydrometallurgical uranium, especially in heap and underground sulfuric-acid leaching of uranium with participation of variable valency metal ions as accelerating agents.
For the efficient sulfuric-acid leaching of four-valency uranium as well as nonferrous and noble metals from sulfide raw material using ferric iron as oxidizer, it seems expedient to regenerate it in the reusable leaching solutions.
The tests of the heap and underground uranium leaching showed that when the solution with рН = 2.0 and Fe (II) concentration of 1.0 g/l was treated by air–gas mixture with SO2 content of 2% under room temperature, Fe2+ oxidized to Fe3+ with the related rise in the redox potential Eh and increase in the acidity of the solution.
Oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ with the help of SO2 and air mixtures is the promising way of comprehensive uranium extraction and leaching.
Key words: uranium extraction, leaching, oxidation, sulfide raw material, ferric iron.



HANTURGAEVA G.I., STYAZHKINA E.N. THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF MOLYBDENUM CONCENTRATE
Results of electrothermic segregation smelting of low grade molybdenum concentrates with sodium sulfate are presented. It is shown that in the conditions of segregation smelting practically all molybdenum and tungsten selectively concentrate in a salt phase that allows with sufficient efficiency to carry out processing of low grade molybdenum concentrates.
The study focuses on low-quality molybdenum concentrates (LMC) of rough and recleaner flotation of rebellious molybdenum ore extracted in the southern wing of the Malo-Oinogorsky deposit (standard mining technology).
The tests of the ore preparability showed low flotation capacity, especially at the finishing stage.
It is possible to shorten the process of metal recovery from LMC and intermediate products, reduce the processed material amount and increase extraction using the combined technology of preliminary flotation to produce LMC with high molybdenum content and then thermochemical concentration with liquation of liquid melts.
Liquation melting is the process stage that, although metallurgical, belongs in chemical beneficiation: nearly finished products are obtained within single operation.
Key words: electrothermic smelting, segregation smelting, molybdenum concentrate, sodium sulfate, molybdenum trisulphide, tungsten acid.



KHRULEV A.S., PERFILEVA M.A. CALCULATION OF AIRLIFT IN HYDRAULIC BOREHOLE MINERAL MINING
The authors compare the experimental airlift data with the airlift calculations by Geier’s formula, by energy balance and from the derived empirical relation.
The calculated airlift parameters are compared with the airlift characteristics and parameters from large amount of experimental data obtained either in laboratory or in field hydraulic borehole mining of phosphorite, construction-sand and gold placers.
The calculation of airlift parameters by the energy balance inside and outside airlift allows taking into account design of an airlift tool and the lifting conditions.
The required airlift capacity is provided by varying air consumption, airlift pipe diameter and drowning ratio when washing-out is implemented in weak-permeable rocks such as permafrost sandstone formations.
The derived empirical relation for the airlift with a short suction nose-piece enables simplified calculation of the airlift parameters and yields the results close to the experimental data and the estimates by the energy balance.
Key words: hydraulic borehole mineral mining, airlift.



KULIKOVA E.YU. MAKING OF ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS IN THE FIELD OF SAFETY OF UNDERGROUND BUILDING
Administrative decisions in the field of safety of underground building are conducted on three system levels – conceptually-operative, operative and tactical. An important role in making management decision belongs to the correct model resolution of the problem situation, including problems, united by a common purpose.
This model is a combination of verbal and formal modeling tasks of hazard (problem) situation, the solution of which provides a selection of the best technological solutions for the development of underground space.
Key words: safety, underground building, emergency (problem) situation, administrative decision.



AINBINDER I.I., OVCHARENKO O.V., PATSKEVICH P.G. GEOMECHANICAL RESEARCHES OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THE ROCK MASS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT DURING THE MINING OF KIMBERLITE PIPE INTERNATIONAL
The article contains the results of finite element researches of the stress-strain state of the rock mass and its development during the mining of kimberlites of pipe International and recommended probable variant of the mining technology.
It is shown that with this mining method, under high horizontal stresses that initiate zones of hazardous vertical tensile strains reaching limit values and causing stratification and collapse of ore and backfill mass, it is impossible to ensure safe mining, even under tightened requirements on the backfill mass strength and stability.
The author proposes a mining method alternative with the high capacity chamber mining and extraction output comparable with the slicing system performance.
Key words: kimberlite pipe, stopping, stress-strain state, numerical modeling.



In chronological aspect considered finds the discovery, knowledge, terminology and usage in different spheres of varieties of the mineral corundum. Illustrates the close relationship mastering ordinary and noble corundum with the material and aesthetic evolution of mankind.
Key words: gemology, corundum, ruby, sapphire, terminology, chronology, the history of mankind, technology.

NIKIFOROVA A.I., SANFIROV I.A., KALASHNIKOVA M.M. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER KAMA MINE FIELDS COMPLEXITY SEISMOGEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
Geological complications of evaporite sections, which caused disastrous, genetically related to the anomal structure enclosing sedimentary layers. Previous studies have found that one of the probable reasons of the "disturbed" areas formation is the influence of the underlying reef massifs. Probably the geological basis revealed regularities is the differentiation process of the bottom relief salt-origin basin due to unequal ability to postsedimentary compaction of the underlying rocks different genesis and lithology.
The influence of reef structures to the potash accumulation features is analyzed for Upper Kama deposit. Formation of weak zones in the salt series installed direct (well drilling, testing) and remote (seismic surveys, geochemical sampling) studies. The possibility of such sites presence is justified by mathematical modeling. Negative changes in the structure of potash accumulation consist in replacing rock salt producing formations, reducing their thickness and the content of useful components. In the areas of mine fields, located above the organogenic buildings, marked reduction in service life of mine workings, which is caused, apparently, a decrease of rock strength. When drilling wells in the circuit reef massif increases the likelihood of gas shows. According to the geomechanical calculations presence reef mass makes changes in the values of all operating stresses. There is increased concentration of the wave field complications in the range of the salt stratum to "reef" areas of the mine fields compared with "no reef". When profiles cross not only descent part, but the reef itself the percentage of anomalies in the reef contour compared to the rest area of the mine field is greatly increased.
Regional assessment of the mine fields structure, territorial superposed with a reef arrays is based on the analysis of data about the features structure of the saliferous complex, derived from drilling and shallow seismic studies. There is an increasing of negative changes P1 ir sediments with increasing reefs sizes. Negative changes are considered as consedimentation and postsedimentation nature. Intense negative changes in the internal structure and composition of the salt stratum are confined not only to the descents, but also to the central parts of the reef massifs represented by the crown and reef platform facies.
Key words: Upper Kama potash deposit, reef, facies, lithology, seismic, gas shows, mathematical modeling, adverse changes.



Mining machinery, equipment and transport



BOLOBOV V.I., BATALOV A.P., BOYTSOV YU.P., BOCHKOV V.S. CONCERNING THE POSSIBILITY OF INCREASING DURABILITY LININGS OF BALL MILLS
High-manganese steel 110G13L, or the Hadfield steel, is widely used in manufacture of mining equipment parts meant for operation in the severe abrasive wear conditions (inner lining of ball mills, jaws of jaw mills, teeth of shovel buckets).
The article considers quality of cold work hardening of 110G13L steel inner lining of a ball mill without rock feed, when grinding bodies attack directly the lining plate. The rational parameters of mill operation for the cold work hardening to be efficient are found. The dynamic hardness Нd of steel is calculated based on the steel hardness under static impression of a ball.
The calculation of ball fall velocity at the time of the lining collision, V, uses the equation of free fall of a ball thrown at an angle relative to horizon, from the highest point of the ball trajectory, H, up to the ball and lining collision point. The time of the coal work hardening of the ball mill inner lining is calculated, too.
The calculation of time for the 20-fold attack of the total inner lining surface supposes that only the outward layer balls deliver effective blows, and inward layer balls collide with the lying balls.
The ball mill life period between the coal work hardening stages is evaluated. It is proved that for the increased life (1.9 times) of the Hadfield steel inner lining plates, it is required to carry out cyclic strengthening treatment (during 12 min) of inner lining by balls with the strengthening cycle duration for 27 days.
Taking a ball mill with a central discharge (type: MBC-4500×6000) operating without rocks as an example it is shown that a bombardment of the lining by grinding bodies made of steel 110G13L directly is capable to raise its hardness from 200 to 325HB at the depth of the cold-hardened layer up to 7 mm that will approximately 2 times increase its firmness to an abrasion .The time needed for the realization of an effective bombardment is 12 minutes, the period between strengthening cold - work hardenings is 27 days.
Key words: lining of a ball mill, Hadfield’s steel, cold hardening, hardness, wear resistance.



SERGEEV V.V. ON THE HOLES LOCALIZATION IN THE AERATORS OF VARIOUS TYPES FOR THE PNEUMOTRANSPORT MACHINES
The methodics of the holes localization determination on the aerators surface of the chamber-type pneumotransport machine is presented.
The calculation is aimed at finding diameters of circular pattern of hole rows. In one case, total surface area of aerator is split onto equal areas, and the number of the areas is equal to the number of the hole rows. In the other case, the flattened cone volume is divided into equal volumes, and the number of the volumes is equal to the number of the hole rows. The number of holes is the same per row, based on that areas and volumes affected by air flows from the aerator holes are the same for each hole row.
The number of holes in each row, to meet the requirement of uniform distribution of holes over the surface of aerator, so that each hole affects equal area of false bottom or equal volume of material on application of tube aerators arranged along the axis of a chamber, can be determined and allotted in proportion to the diameters or perimeters of circles the holes are arranged in.
Key words: pneumochamber pump, chamber pneumocharger, flat false bottom aerator, tube aerator on the chamber conic bottom surface, friable materials, granulated explosives, cement pneumogun, guniting of the underground workings, the underground working concrete roofing.



BAYBAKOVA T.V. COMPLEX INTERPRETATION OF SHALLOW SEISMIC DATA IN COMPLICATED MINE AND GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
The main causes of emergencies, that have arisen in the major potash basins in Germany and Canada, associated with the lack of information about the mining fields geological structure features.
One of the most significant emergencies consequences on potash mines is the formation of the earth's surface caves. The main reasons of their forming consist in intensification of technogenic salt processes.
One of the most informative geophysical methods at the study of such processes is the common depth point method seismic survey. During interpretation the complex analysis of the following wave field components: amplitude, effective velocity, frequency and signal/noise ratio is more informative. The informative estimation of the used field attributes allows to define the local inhomogeneities boundaries.
In this article the example of implementation in seismic researches practice of similar complex interpretation methodology with the wave attributes quantitative estimation in solving technogenic salt karst development control problems is considered. The object is interesting in that at the moment there is the earth's surface subsidence and monitoring seismic surveys can observe the development of salt karst in real time. All accumulated material is executed as space-time diagrams of complex parameter, that represent his changes on a profile throughout the cycle of observations.
Key words: dynamic and kinematic characteristics, complex interpretation, salt karst, complex parameter, seismic attribute informative, space-time estimation.


 
CHUGAEV A.V. QUALITY ESTIMATION CRITERIA OF UNDERMINED TERRITORY MONITORING BY SURFACE WAVES
Because of downfall incidents on Verhnekamskoe potash deposit there were defined most hazardous places. In this places are held different types of monitoring, including seismic. To estimate measured changes significance one must define criteria that allow indicate presence of changes in physical-mechanical properties of studied rock-mass interval.
There were held analysis of measurement series, get in the process of surface waves monitoring studies on mine field hazardous area of flooded pit. Three-dimensional data massive containing S waves velocities analyzed with different approaches: 1. Integral estimation of single survey, for example velocity value median all through the line with next chart plot. Defining velocity median in particular zones, which helps to control most dangerous areas. 2. Partitioning of massive V(x,h,t) to one-dimensional curves set Vx,h=f(t), each curve linear approximation, and plotting standard deviation distribution by cross-section. This distribution allows revealing areas with most unstable definition of measured parameter. 3. Linear approximation of each curve Vx,h=f(t), defining slope coefficient kx,h and plotting distribution k(x,h). This allows marking out zones with most intensive changes of velocities in cross-plot. 4. Averaging velocities by h coordinate and plotting space-time diagram V(x,t). This way also may be used averaging velocities in defined depth interval and plotting diagrams of layerwise velocities changes.
Complex of introduced methods allows making a decision about time dependent changing of velocities in rock massive shallow part, what indicates by-turn presence of negative processes weakening massif strength properties. Besides of solving main task of the research there were defined connection between level of subsoil water and value of S wave velocities, coupling coefficient empirically determined.
Key words: Multiwave seismic, geophysical control, reflective waves, surface waves, monitoring, anthropogenic disaster, mining safety, statistical analysis.



VYSKREBENETS A.S., KIBIZOV S.G. COAL PREPARATION IN CENTRIFUGAL CRUSHING–GRINDING UNITS
The article deals with the preparation of pulverized coal in rotary crushing and grinding plants. Depending on the required subtlety crushing recommended the preparation of various schemes with the use of crushing and shredding plants, vibratory mill and ball mill drum.
Crushing and grinding equipment that is now in use features high power consumption, high metal loss due to wear of active parts, contamination of ground product with metal chips and low efficiency, which amounts to a few percent in mills.
Centrifugal crushing–grinding units based on the dynamic self-grinding principle combine crushing and grinding processes in the same machine.
Two process flow sheets are offered to prepare pulverized coal depending on the fineness of grinding of the finished product. Coarse grinding can use a ball drum mill at the second milling stage, or a crushing–grinding unit in the complete cycle with separator. The parallel working area arranged between the bowl and adjust ring of the crushing–grinding unit allows size grading of the product, which is important for the fuel combustion efficiency.
Key words: crushing, grinding, minerals, coal fuel.


GALIN I.A. KINEMATICS OF DUAL-CHANNEL BELT SCALE
The article describes kinematics of duel-channel belt scale meant for enhanced accuracy weighing of conveyed granular material. The accuracy is reached from selection of rational designs of the belt scale buckets and indirect calibration and checking of belt scales, which is an alternative method as against direct load weighing on reference fixed weighing machines scarcely used by the modern-day industry.
Apart from easy and prompt indirect calibration and checking, the duel-channel belt scale kinematics features simple design and assembly with the help of single idler as compared to dual idler conveyor scale on the common weighing platform.
It is not everywhere possible to install multi idler belt scale, due to tight work area, especially in enclosed space. Analysis of kinematics of any number idler belt scale should take into account systematic inaccuracy of the scale, that will govern the reference load weight.
Key words: belt scale, scale bucket, conveyor belt, idler.


GORLOV I.V., POLETAEVA E.V. ANALYSIS OF CONDITION TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECT ON THE BASIS OF STRUCTURAL MODEL
Creation of a control system by state of technological elements depending on specific conditions of operation on the basis of the analysis of object’s structural model and parametrical optimization of the components which are responsible for working capacity is one of actual directions of peat cars using efficiency increasing.
Information collecting and processing on a diagnosing object condition, based on assembly units and details shortcoming identification limiting an operating time to repair provide the process’ objective component of working capacity maintenance.
For information system of working capacity maintenance realization the object model with consistently connected elements which refusal leads to refusal of all system is constructed.
Key words: the restoration, repair, diagnostics, algorithm, information technology, technical condition, structural models.



ZHETESOV S.S., ZHETESOVA G.S., ABDUGALIEVA G.B., YURCHENKO V.V., MULKASHEV E.K. WATER CLARIFICATION AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT EQUIPMENT FOR MINING TOWNS
The article deals with the issues of design and manufacture of equipment for water clarification and quality improvement in mining towns.
Many-years research work at the Karaganda State Technical University has resulted in the development of the water clarification and quality improvement facility based on the methods of physicochemical treatment of coal beds. The working medium is porous-solid activated carbon obtained from carbofossils or charcoal under fat wood removal or charring of polymers and used as the adsorbent. The project implementation will meet requirements of drink water supply at a rate of 5 l/min.
Key words: water clarification and quality improvement, mining town, distiller, physicochemical treatment of coal beds.



ZHETESOV S.S., ZHETESOVA G.S., ABDUGALIEVA G.B., YURCHENKO V.V. DEVELOPMENT AND INTRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE ELECTRIC ENERGY SOURCES FOR MINING TOWNS WITH POPULATION OF 1000 AND ABOVE
The article focuses on development and introduction of alternative energy supply of mining towns with population of 1000 and above.
The novelty of the research project is the use of the hydrostatic pressure of water fall from the height of 10 m and higher in the turbine installations of the type of the Kaplan turbine or other new systems.
The research result is the design of alternative energy sources for remote mining towns.
To implement the project staff of the Military Technical Laboratory. First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed Pond and lake-depth mini-hydro. EFFECT - ecological safety of the plant design, the absence of adverse effects on water quality, the use in small natural and artificial reservoirs without water flow.
Key words: alternative energy source, lake and deep-water mini or nano hydropower installation.



ZHETESOV S.S., ZHETESOVA G.S., MALIBAEV N.S., ABDUGALIEVA G.B., JOLDIBAEVA G.S., YURCHENKO V.V., KULMAGAMBETOV E.M. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING REGIME IN PRODUCTION HEADINGS EQUIPPED WITH THE KAM-TYPE AUTOMATED STOPING MACHINE COMPLEX, THE NEW TECHNOLOGY EFFICIENCY AND FIELD OF USE
The article considers organization of broken coal flow from a mechanized production face with a new top-coal gravity flow technology using an automated stoping machine complex of the type of KAM.
A key criterion of any stoping machine efficiency, including the KAM-type machine complexes, is the ma-chine capacity depending on its design and operation parameters, utilization factor and appli¬cation conditions.
The author determines technological capabilities and working capacity of the stoping machine complex and production method, considering downtimes.
Key words: gravity flow technology, efficiency, mechanized stoping machine complex.



KRASNIKOV V.D., SHCHERBA T.P. AN ANALYSIS OF A THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF A SHEARER BY MINING OF SILVINIT
The article analyzes a theoretical average efficiency of a shearer. It is determined by a weighted average torque developed by an electric motor and a weighted average specific power consumption. A weighted average torque developed by an electric motor and average specific energy depends strongly on the gear transmission drive of a cutting drum.
The presented graphs plotted at various mathematical expectations of seam cutting resistance show that the values of rational transmission number and weighted mean capacity of a cutter–loader of the type of KSH3M drastically depend on the seam cutting resistance.
Out of basic design parameters of auger-type effectors, the number of cutters in a cutting row is very important. In order to estimate the influence exerted by this parameter on the weighted mean capacity and the rational transmission number of the cutter–loader effector drive, the relations of the weighted mean cutter–loader capacity and the effector drive transmission number are obtained for the KSH3M cutter–loader equipped with double spiral vane drum (two cutters in cutting line) and triple spiral vane drum (three cutters in cutting line).
Analysis of the obtained relations yields that no shift in the rational transmission number takes place on the change in the variation factor. At lower variation factors, the increment in the weighted mean capacity of the cutter–loader due to the change in the transmission number is more pronounced.
Key words: Longwall shearer, capacity, thickness of a seam, cutting drum, web depth, power and gear drive, energy costs, destruction of rock mass, resistance to cutting.



MAKAROV N.V. APERTURE ANGLE OF THE EQUIVALENT FAN DIFFUSER FOR THE RADIAL IMPELLER BLADE CHANNEL
The whirlwind-sourses modelling as system of the distributed drains, has allowed to specify the formula for calculation of a disclosing corner equivalent diffusor between-blades channel of the driving wheel centrifugal fan f. It is proved, that decrease in an effective corner of the disclosing caused by interaction high-energy stream whirlwind-sourses with the basic current in diffusor on an exit from it. It allows to increase a disclosing corner between-blades the driving wheel channel, keeping thus a continuous flow and as result, the pressure developed by the fan is essential to raise.
The analyzed method of the equivalent diffuser shows losses in blade channel only under throttable operational mode of fan, when the impinging angle exceeds its optimum value.
Based on the equivalent diffuser calculation procedure, the radial aerodynamic configuration Ts145-20 with integrated vorticity sources has been synthesized, and the gas suction fan VTsG-7A impeller with vortex chambers at lips of the fan blades has been designed. The static fan pressure of VTsG-7A is 25% higher than the fan VTsG-7M has at the same maximum efficiency.
Key words: equivalent diffuser, disclosing corner, circulation, effective area, vortical chamber.



MALAKHOV V.A., GALKIN A.V. KEY MEASURES OF SERVICE PROPERTIES OF GREASE LUBRICANTS FOR MINE BELT CONVEYOR CARRYING ROLLERS
In this article the necessity of clarifying the coefficients used in calculation the resistance movement and to determine the reliability of the roll set belt conveyors, for modern greases produced by domestic and foreign industry.
The analysis of experimental test data on roller belt travel resistance force components showed that the travel resistance force was affected by bearing box charge with lubricant, seal design and ambient temperature. A series of roller designs with bearing boxes using different grease lubricants BNZ-3, BNZ-3M (cold-resistant) and others were tested.
Having processed the test data using the mathematical statistics method, the relation for roller spinning resistance force was derived. The calculation of durability of bearing boxes using oil with kinematic viscosity ν ≥ 12 сСт at nDo ≥ 10000 under working temperature is recommended to perform with taking into account conditions required for oil film formation on the contact surface of rolling bodies and roller paths, in accord with elastodynamic lubrication theory.
The author describes key measures of service properties of grease lubricants now in use in the domestic and foreign industry. Grease lubricant service properties are grouped into strength properties (shear strength, mechanical stability, colloid stability, wear resistance), temperature properties (temperature stability, drop temperature) and chemical properties (chemical stability).
Comparative analysis of grease lubricant market (Russian manufacture and foreign analogs) is performed.
It is assigned to choose some domestic and foreign manufacture grease lubricants and, on this basis, to test coefficients included in estimation of travel resistance force and reliability of belt conveyor carrying rollers.



MALYBAEV S.K., KHAIBULLIN R.R., BALABAEV O.P. FINDING RATIONAL DESIGN OF BELT BEND PULLEYS FOR MINE CONVEYOR CARRYING SIDE
The developed calculation methods for strength of bend pulleys on belt carrying side make it possible to select rational geometry parameters of the bend pulleys, at sufficient safety factor, with the aim to ensure fault-free performance of mine belt conveyor drives.
The new-proposed method of enforcement of the bend pulley structure by installation of V strengthening ring abates stress–strain state of sidewalls.
From theoretical research, the calculation of total load on a bend pulley should take into account dynamic force of belt deformation on middle idler and on side surfaces, as well as the generalized force of a unit load element.
Actual calculation of bend pulley strength must account for sudden unforeseen load using the load increment coefficient to make the calculation more accurate.
Key words: bend pulleys, mine belt conveyor, mines.



MULUHOV K.K., BESLEKOEVA Z.N. YNTHESIS MECHANISM CONTROL PRESSING MEMBER STEEPLY INCLINED BELT WHEEL CONVEYOR GOODS FOR LUMPY
Considered improved design steeply inclined conveyor lift , in the role of co- torus additional pinch belts operate free from the burden of the most lateral portions of the load-bearing belt and clamping levers interact with them without bindings , forming the free edges of the lap joints layer load. Such changes greatly simplify construction - tion due to the exclusion of corrugated ribbons and pressing numerous anchorages of these belts is screwed to the supports, and the edges of the pressing levers.
The structural and kinematic synthesis control mechanism clamping levers conveyor. Control mechanism consists of a conical transmission spring driving the rotary arm with casters and the planar follower guide. Control mechanism in this case represents an inverted cam mechanism. Based on the study of the mechanism developed by the method of calculation and design of the basic elements of management mechanism clamping levers. Implementation of the proposed pipeline could have a significant economic impact, especially in the development of deep pits due to reductions in capital mining operations and exclude secondary crushing of rocks and ores.
Key words: belt conveyor wheel control mechanism clamping levers Ku lachkovy mechanism.


OSTANOVSKY A.A. THE EBGP-1 DRILL-BASED ADAPTIVE ROTATION DRILLING MACHINE
The author indicates shortcomings of existing drills and proposes the patented adaptive drilling machine design and operation principles. The base line and new version drilling machines are characterized.
The new engineering solution implemented is autoregulation of EBGP-1 drill, i.e., the drill rod antitorque moment changes against the change in the pulldown and the rotational torque overshoot results in automatic decrease in the pulldown.
The control system modification due to the adaptive unit introduced enables variation in the drill rod pulldown depending on the rotational torque.
At the adaptive drilling machine design stage, the base line and new version equipment have been compared.
It is scheduled to test EBGP-1 drill in mine conditions in order to prove serviceability of the proposed drilling machine design and to obtain data required for more exact description of the adaptive drilling process as well as for the comparison with standard drills operating under analogous conditions.
Key words: Drilling machines, drill rod, electrohydraulic rock crusher.



RUSSKY E.YU., KRASYUK A.M. PERTURBING EFFECT OF AIR FLOW ON STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF MAIN FAN ROTOR DETAILS
The authors analyze axial fan rotor design, estimate perturbation air flow parameters and relate stresses in the rotor details and the perturbation air flow parameters.
The accomplished research shows that the nonsteady-state mechanical system has torsional oscillation amplitudes much higher than nominal angles of torsion when in the steady flow. This can result in malfunction of main mine fan. It is possible to diminish the torsional oscillation amplitudes by increasing the power shaft inflexibility due to enlarged diameter of the shaft or lowered inertia moment of the rotor. However, the equipment cost will rise and assembly of the heavier shaft will complicate in this case.
It follows from the graphical charts that on actuation of fan, the fan blades pass through a number of resonance zones. This causes neither hazardous stresses nor strains in the blade unit structure due to fugacity of the blade occurrence in these zones, as well as owing to low energy of perturbing air flow generated by guide vanes and directing vanes and rotational air flow separation. Upon the fan runout, it is required to equip the fan engine with brakes in order to cut the time of the blades occurrence in resonance zones.
Key words: axial fan rotor, stress-strain state, perturbing air flow



TEREKHIN E.P. THE TECHNIQUE ENGINEERING CALCULATION GRANULATING SCREW PRESS FOR BENTONITE CLAYS ACTIVATION
The technique allows to determine the power characteristics of the press, depending on the geometric and kinematic parameters, as well as the properties of activated bentonite clays. Operation of the production line at JSC «NIIKMA» experimental plant showed the accordance of energy costs with those of calculated under various loading conditions.
Maximum stress regime of a screw extruder jammed with compacted semiplastic clay is characterized by the absence of forward motion of clay and the low torque on the drive. In this case, clay clogs spacing of flight screws, and the screw turns into a solid clay cylinder that rotates and interacts with clayey jacket of the housing.
The engineering design procedure for a granulating screw extruder was used in designing of granulated activated bentonite production line that has been successively operated at the pilot plant of NIIKMA JSC. The derived relations can be used in calculation of squeezing machines for granulation of other plastic materials, e.g., expanded-clay aggregate.
Key words: screw press, calculation, bentonite clay, activation, granulation.


TOGIZBAEVA B.B. CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM BIN OUTLET SIZE
The article presents the experimental data on modeling, at sufficient reliability, a real flow of movable ore under influence of such factors as cohesion, moisture and others.
Simulation of feeding, keeping and discharging of fine-crushed ore assists in studying the main factors governing these processes. The simulation at 1:20 scale offers an opportunity of assessing reliable predictability of these processes in full-scale conditions.
Modeling of the free-flowing material behavior in a bin assumes constant ratio of the bin outlet diameter and the maximum material fragment size.
Key words: bin outlet, ore consolidation, modeling, free-flowing material.



FOKIN A.E., GAVRILENKO M.D., SHISHKAREV M.P. HEIGHTENING OF LOAD ABILITY OF ADAPTIVE FRICTIONAL CLUTCHES OF THE FIRST GENERATION
Synthesis of an adaptive frictional clutch of the first generation with the differentiated steams of a friction having various average radiuses of surfaces of a friction is realised. It is displayed, that at certain parities of magnitudes of average radiuses of surfaces of a friction of leading and led frictional groups the created construction of a clutch possesses higher, in comparison with a clutch having identical average radiuses of surfaces of a friction of frictional groups, load ability.
Traditional approaches to increasing load-carrying capacity of first-generation adaptive friction clutches—enhancement of friction couples, enlargement of mean radius of clutch friction facing, gain in amplification factor of feedback device, etc.—result in degradation of other performance characteristics of the adaptive friction clutches—operation accuracy, size and weight.
Toward the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the first-generation AFC, this article proposes a low-output command unit to control clutch force of friction couples with enlarged diameter of clutch friction facing, at full possession of AFC operation accuracy.
Increase in the load-carrying capacity of AFC with unequal radii of friction facings of the drive and driven clutches is achieved when the driven friction clutch facing radius is larger than the radius of the drive friction clutch facing.
Key words: adaptive frictional clutch, feedback, strengthening factor, friction factor, average radius of a friction.



Automation and information systems


GONCHARENKO A.N. INTELLECTUAL AGENTS INTERACTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS MULTIAGENTNY SYSTEMS
Article is devoted to system approaches description intellectual agents interaction in the industrial enterprise multiagentny system where the agents’ collective behavior assumes agents cooperation at the collective solution of tasks. Thus bilateral and multilateral dynamic relations between agents establishment is not only agents’ activity consequence, but also necessary condition coalition communities formation. A certain mathematical base for creation mathematical models on the theory games basis is brought. Options cooperative type agents’ interaction, antagonistic game, the accounting compromise agents’ interests, conformism and evasion principle interaction are considered. Some formalistic approaches description rules dialogue and communications between agents from the view point of "consent" (negotiations), or "disagreement" (dispute debate) logic are offered that in the subsequent gives the chance to present to the logician agents negotiations in multiagentny system.
Key words: intellectual agent, multiagentny system, theory of games, strategy of behavior of agents, industrial enterprise, mathematical model, game-theoretic models.



EGOROV I.V., VNUKOV A.A. ASSESMENT OF EFFECTIVITY OF PARALLEL DIRECTIONAL INTERPOLATION ALGORITM IN DIGITAL IMAGE SCALING MODULE
This article deals with digital image scaling and optimizing of calculations by means of parallel processing. It is argued that the most efficient structure for this task is that of many-staged processing. Ii proposed to use FPGA as the hardware basis.
The main velocity advantage of pipelined approach as compared with one-pass processing is the merit of fast zooming algorithms with a certain factor (in our case, 2) where majority of preliminary image analysis algorithms belong.
Combination of targeted interpolation algorithm and pipeline mode allows elimination of consuming multiplication and division processes, using exclusively fast integer addition, diminution and shift operations of modern PLD equal in fast performance to VLSI.
With modern PLD-aided scaling, higher response rate as compared to software-only approach is achievable along with the option of system modification.
Key words: image scaling, parallel processing, FPGA.


SAMARIN N.N. THE ALGORITHM OF THE RECEIVING AND INTERPRETING DATA FROM THE RUNTIME JOURNAL OF THE VIRTUAL MACHINE
The article contains the research of the runtime journal of Bochs virtual machine that provides a complete hardware emulation of the x86 platform. The aim of the article is to develop the algorithm of the receiving and interpreting data from the runtime journal of the virtual machine with the possibility to use it in analysis of the memory areas of the computing system.
By implementing a sample log information about the virtual machine read and write operations on specific locations in the area of memory, it is possible to monitor all the software that runs under a hypervisor. On this basis, the algorithm of obtaining and interpreting the data from the job log of the virtual machine.
Key words: virtual machine, sourceless software, memory area, processor, linear address, physical address, undocumented feature.



Aerology, methane, safety



MAKAROV V.N., LEONTEV E.V. GENESIS AIRIGN GASSY COAL MINES AND EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ITS IMPLEMENTATION
The set of all mine fans is to be assumed the combined exhaust-and-forced ventilation complex providing safe health conditions, eliminating methane hazard and creating a gas barrier in a mine. In this context, it is required to create a local ventilation fan complex in order to generate the required depression in the zone of air and methane flow separation, with the aim to ensure aerogasdynamic isolation of stopes and mined-out voids, given concurrent operation of main mine fans and gas-suction plants.
The curves of specific relative methane content, absolute methane content, production heading load and air distribution coefficients are presented. Specific relative ventilation expenditure within the coal mining cost structure is shown.



SHEIN A.YU., ZAITSEV G.YA. INDUSTRIAL USING OF GAS METHANE AND REDUCTION OF IT EXTRASS IN AN ATMOSPHERE BY THE ENTERPRISES OF COAL INDUSTRY
The article is about an exploitation of environment protective equipment using the reprocessing fitting CMM. The implemented projects have been reviewed.
It is of interest at this time to introduce gas (methane) use technologies in view of the atmospheric air protection from the greenhouse gas emission and the country energy supply.
There is immense experience gained in the mine methane recovery worldwide.
By experts’ estimate, coal methane reserves in USA amount to 4–11 Bm3. Annual mine methane production is 1 B3. China ranks second to none in the world production of coal and mine methane emission. Coal bed methane reserves range 30—35 B3.
Russia holds 72–79 Bm3 methane occurred mainly in the Tungussky, Kuznetsky, Leninsky and Pechorsky Coal Basins.
Ukraine is one of the leading producers and users of mine methane in the world. The country imports nearly 55 Bm3 of natural gas (70—75% of the demand). By coal methane reserves, Ukraine ranks fourth after China, Russia and Canada, keeping ahead of USA.
Mine methane use investment projects under provisions of the Kioto Protocol are implemented in five coal mines in Donetsk Region, with total investment of UAH 791.6 million.
Application of new promising techniques of coal bed degassing will enhance productivity of operating cogeneration plants.
The Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics and the Institute of Pulse Processes and Technologies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine possess scientific developments on electrical discharge and hydrodynamic impact, that showed successfully in oil and gas well treatment, outburst prevention and intensification of coal methane recovery using underground boreholes.
Introduction of methane recovery and use techniques will provide advantages of extra financial support, enhanced mining safety, advanced equipment and technologies and improved environment.



Technology mining



KREMCHEEV E.A., PETROVA T.A. LARGE-SCALE MECHANIZATION OF MAN-MADE DEPOSITS SHIELDING OPERATIONS BY COMPOSITES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDING AGENTS
The distinctive features of the formation of man-made deposits that created in the mine technical practice are shown. A new technology of proper and environmentally efficient isolation of man-made deposits by forming the face of polymeric materials in the melted state was presented.
Existing mineral processing technologies fail to provide complete extraction of commercial components. Waste accumulates and becomes mining-resulted mineral source.
At the deposits developed by the hydraulic fill method, millions of cubic meters of processing tailings have been accumulated.
The mining-produced waste accumulations daily undergo oxidation, leaching and disintegration, which alters their mineralogy and material constitution, and results in outflow of different elements and origination of pollution areas.
The article reports the results of integrated research of mining waste accumulations in the areas of operation of Gazprom JSC, Mikhailovsky Mining-and-Processing Integrated Works JSC, Lafarzh Cement JSC, and others.
The reliable and ecology-friendly waste isolation technology has been developed based on shielding made of melt polymeric materials. Apart from other advantages, the technology allows polyethylene disposal being the ecologically important issue [2]. The polymeric cover making takes up to 12–15 kg polyethylene waste per each square meter.
Based on the available research outcomes, the author positively concludes that disintegration of existing mining waste accumulations is an urgent challenge of national economy, feasible using the offered safe shielding technology. The developed mine waste conservation technology will assist in handling problems on mitigation of economic damage due to potential mineral wealth loss under wind and water erosion, as well as improve ecological situation at locations of mining waste accumulations.



SHAGAROVA O.N. ABRASIVE WEAR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AS WAY OF DURABILITY INCREASES THE MINING AND PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
Оn the example of magnetic-pulse processing quartz sand ways the abrasive wear environment management for the purpose durability increase the mining and processing equipment are considered.
Abrasive wear process components are not only interconnected but can individually affect the rate of abrasive wear and, thus, the durability of work faces of equipment.
Extension of durability of mill effectors requires reduction of the milling process energy intensity, i.e., breaking of structural bonds in abrasive grains. This is possible through change in the abrasive mass lattice parameters under external impact, for instance, magnetic-pulse treatment.
From the research findings, it is confirmed that the magnetic-pulse treatment, as the abrasive wear medium, greatly affects physico-mechanical characteristics of quartz sand (grindability).
Key words: abrasive wear environment, abrasive weight, magnetic-pulse processing, MIO, quartz sand, enrichment, crushing, durability increase, wear of the equipment.



Economy, management and planning


BOGDANOVA I.N. MANAGEMENT LABOR UTILIZATION
The article describes the main factors affecting the efficiency of the labor force in line with the development of market relations in the Russian economy and the restructuring of the coal industry.
We consider the political, economic, legal, moral and other regulators of behavior human rights in society, the problems of restructuring in the mining industry - there was a mass the Reduction of inefficient jobs in existing plants and the elimination of unprofitable and non-promising industries. Economic reasons are given the elimination of unprofitable coal mines.
Structural transformations were accompanied by certain social tensions. In most regions of the country clearly identify the problems related to human resources, characterized by the negative trends in demography, the imbalance between
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